Cry out with joy to God, all the earth: serve the Lord with gladness.
Year: B(II). Psalm week: 4. Liturgical Colour: Green.
|Other saints: St Luke Kirby (c.1549-1582)|
30 May (where celebrated)
Luke Kirby was born in the north of England about 1549, was brought up in the new faith and is said to have graduated M.A., probably at Cambridge. Having been reconciled to the Church at Louvain, he entered Douai College in 1576, and was ordained priest at Cambrai in September the following year. He left Reims for England on 3 May, 1578, but very soon returned to the English College in Rome, where he took the college oath to serve on the English mission. In June 1580, he came to England, landing at Dover. He was immediately arrested and committed to the Gatehouse, Westminster. From there he was transferred to the Tower, where he was subjected to the “Scavenger’s Daughter” for more than an hour. (This was a device named after Sir Leonard Skeffington, Lieutenant of the Tower of London; it was an A-frame shaped metal rack, the head being strapped to the top point of the A, the hands at the mid-point and the legs at the lower spread ends; swinging the head down and forcing the knees up in a sitting position so compressed the body as to force the blood from the nose and ears). He was condemned, 17 November, 1581, and from 2 April till the day of his death on 30 May 1582 he was kept in irons.
|Other saints: The Yorkshire Martyrs|
Margaret Clitherow (née Middleton, born 1556) married John Clitherow, a butcher, when she was 15. She became a Catholic three years later and did all she could to hide Catholic priests, it being a capital offence to work as a priest. Mass was said regularly in her house and next door. In 1586 she was arrested for harbouring priests. She refused to testify to prevent her children being forced to give evidence. She was executed by being crushed to death. Her body was secretly taken away by friends and has never been found. A plaque marks the site of her execution.
Henry Walpole (1558-1595) was a lawyer who converted to Catholicism when he was 22. After being ordained a priest abroad he came to England and was arrested within days of his arrival. He was tortured brutally in London over a period of nearly two years. He was eventually taken to York (having originally landed in the north) where he was executed.
Margaret Clitherow and Henry Walpole lead a company of twenty Blessed Martyrs and thirty Venerable Martyrs, put to death within the County of York in penal times. Their names may be joined by those other confessors to the Faith who died in the prisons of York and Hull, and to those other martyrs, such as John Fisher and Luke Kirby, natives of the county, who suffered elsewhere.
|Other saints: St Joan of Arc (c.1412 - 1431)|
Joan was born to a peasant family in Domrémy in what is now Lorraine in eastern France. She herself was not sure of the year in which she was born, but at the time of her trial in 1431 she reckoned herself to be about 19.
At a time in the Hundred years’ War when the kingdom of France seemed powerless against the duchy of Burgundy to the east and against the kings of England (who, according to the Treaty of Troyes, were now kings of France as well), she received visions of St Michael, St Margaret of Antioch and St Catherine of Alexandria, calling her to save France from foreign occupation. It was to prove the turning-point of the Hundred Years’ War and the saving of the kingdom of France.
Aged seventeen, Joan embarked on the task of convincing successive great men of France of her mission, until at last she met Charles VII himself, the as yet uncrowned King of France (she refused to call him “king” for that reason). She prophesied the liberation of the besieged city of Orleans, the king’s coronation at Rheims cathedral (where all the kings of France are crowned), and the liberation of Paris. She was sent by the king with a relief convoy to Orleans, where she inspired the French defenders to such good effect that the English gave up the siege. She persuaded Charles to travel to Rheims, in the heart of Burgundian territory, to be crowned King of France. She led an attack on Paris while the king hesitated, to free it from the Burgundians, but the attack failed (Joan herself was wounded) and the king forbade any further attacks. Joan henceforth led her own troops, which conducted minor skirmishes against local Burgundian forces but with little real success.
Joan went to Compiègne to help it withstand a Burgundian siege, but in a sortie on 23 May 1430 she was captured by the Burgundians. On 21 November 1430 the English bought her from the Burgundians for a substantial sum. They took her to Rouen, where she was imprisoned, and severely interrogated starting in January 1431. Her trial started on 21 February 1431, once enough judges had been found who feared for their lives enough to be likely to give correct verdicts. There was some difficulty in formulating adequate charges, but some seventy of them were eventually found, from leaving her parents’ home without their permission to being in familiar relations with demons. The University of Paris gave its own report: Joan was a schismatic, an apostate, a liar, a sorceress, suspect of heresy, errant in faith, and a blasphemer against God and his saints. Joan appealed to the Pope but the tribunal ignored her appeal. Instead she was orally promised a sentence of incarceration in an ecclesiastical prison if she would abjure her errors, and when she signed the document she was given to sign (with a cross, since she was illiterate), was sent to a secular English prison instead. Having been thus cheated, she withdrew her signature two days later, whereupon she was re-accused, this time on the more serious charge of having relapsed into error, and was condemned to death by burning.
On 20 May 1431, after having confessed and received communion, Joan was publicly burned in Rouen before high officials including Cardinal Henry Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester, and his guests. The Cardinal insisted that Joan should be burned three times: the first (in which the fumes rapidly killed her) being followed by a second and a third burning so that no scrap of her should remain for future veneration or sorcery.
On 15 February 1450, shortly after re-taking Rouen, Charles VII made formal declaration that ‘Joan’s enemies having had her killed cruelly and for no reason’ he demanded an inquiry into the affair. Eventually, in 1455, on the request of Joan’s mother, Pope Calixtus III set in process an inquiry which looked into every detail of the first trial, taking evidence from many eye-witnesses and participants in the process. The final judgement, on 7 July 1456, declared the first trial ‘null, void, without value and without effect’ and completely rehabilitated Joan and her family.
These two trials make the events of the end of Joan’s life among the best documented in mediaeval history.
Although she was unjustly killed by the English using the juridical techniques that they would later employ to such effect at the Reformation, Joan is venerated as a virgin rather than a martyr because she did not die for being a Christian. She was finally beatified on 18 April 1909, and canonized on 16 May 1920, being named Secondary Patron of France.
About the author of the Second Reading in today's Office of Readings:
|Second Reading: St Augustine of Hippo (354 - 430)|
Augustine was born in Thagaste in Africa of a Berber family. He was brought up a Christian but left the Church early and spent a great deal of time seriously seeking the truth, first in the Manichaean heresy, which he abandoned on seeing how nonsensical it was, and then in Neoplatonism, until at length, through the prayers of his mother and the teaching of St Ambrose of Milan, he was converted back to Christianity and baptized in 387, shortly before his mother’s death.
Augustine had a brilliant legal and academic career, but after his conversion he returned home to Africa and led an ascetic life. He was elected Bishop of Hippo and spent 34 years looking after his flock, teaching them, strengthening them in the faith and protecting them strenuously against the errors of the time. He wrote an enormous amount and left a permanent mark on both philosophy and theology. His Confessions, as dazzling in style as they are deep in content, are a landmark of world literature. The Second Readings in the Office of Readings contain extracts from many of his sermons and commentaries and also from the Confessions.
The theological virtue of hope is symbolized by the colour green, just as the burning fire of love is symbolized by red. Green is the colour of growing things, and hope, like them, is always new and always fresh. Liturgically, green is the colour of Ordinary Time, the season in which we are being neither especially penitent (in purple) nor overwhelmingly joyful (in white).
|Mid-morning reading (Terce)||1 Corinthians 10:24,31 ©|
Nobody should be looking for his own advantage, but everybody for the other man’s. Whatever you eat, whatever you drink, whatever you do at all, do it for the glory of God.
|Noon reading (Sext)||Colossians 3:17 ©|
Never say or do anything except in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God the Father through him.
|Afternoon reading (None)||Colossians 3:23-24 ©|
Whatever your work is, put your heart into it as if it were for the Lord and not for men, knowing that the Lord will repay you by making you his heirs. It is Christ the Lord that you are serving.
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Office of Readings for Wednesday of week 8
Morning Prayer for Wednesday of week 8
Evening Prayer for Wednesday of week 8
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